What is EMDR for PTSD (including Birth Trauma)
What is EMDR therapy?
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an interactive psychotherapy technique used to relieve psychological stress. It is an effective treatment for trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a recommended treatment outlined in the UK’s NICE Guidelines .
EMDR therapy is a phased, focused approach to treating traumatic and other symptoms by reconnecting the client in a safe and measured way to the images, thoughts, emotions, and body sensations associated with trauma, and allowing the natural processes of the brain to move toward a resolution of the trauma. It is based on the idea that symptoms occur when trauma and other negative or challenging experiences overwhelm the brain’s natural ability to heal. The healing process can be facilitated through bilateral stimulation while the client is re-experiencing the trauma in the context of the safe environment of the therapist’s office. It identifies and addresses traumatic experiences that have overwhelmed the brain’s natural coping capacity, and, as a result, have created traumatic symptoms, such as flashbacks or anxiety, or harmful coping strategies, such as isolating behaviour and self-medication with alcohol or drugs.
Who benefits from EMDR therapy?
People who are dealing with traumatic memories and those who have PTSD are thought to benefit the most from EMDR therapy. It’s thought to be particularly effective for those who struggle to talk about their past experiences.
How does EMDR therapy work?
EMDR therapy is broken down into eight different phases, so you’ll need to attend multiple sessions. Treatment usually takes about 12 separate session but can take longer for more severe PTSD.
Phase 1: History and treatment planning
Your therapist will first review your history and decide where you are in the treatment process. This evaluation phase also includes talking about your trauma and identifying potential traumatic memories to treat specifically.
Phase 2: Preparation
Your therapist will then help you learn several different ways to cope with the emotional or psychological stress you’re experiencing. Stress management techniques such as deep breathing and mindfulness may be used.
Phase 3: Assessment
During the third phase of EMDR treatment, your therapist will identify the specific memories that will be targeted and all the associated components (such as the physical sensations that are stimulated when you concentrate on an event) for each target memory.
Phases 4-7: Treatment
Your therapist will then begin using EMDR therapy techniques to treat your targeted memories. During these sessions, you will be asked to focus on a negative thought, memory, or image. Your therapist will simultaneously have you do specific eye movements. The bilateral stimulation may also include taps or other movements mixed in, depending on your case. After the bilateral stimulation, your therapist will ask you to let your mind go blank and notice the thoughts and feelings you’re having spontaneously. After you identify these thoughts, your therapist may have you refocus on that traumatic memory, or move on to another.
If you become distressed, your therapist will help bring you back to the present before moving on to another traumatic memory. Over time, the distress over particular thoughts, images, or memories should start to fade.
Phase 8: Evaluation
In the final phase, you’ll be asked to evaluate your progress after these sessions. Your therapist will do the same.
How effective is EMDR therapy?
Multiple independent and controlled studies have shown that EMDR therapy is an effective treatment for PTSD. It’s even one of the Department of Veterans Affairs’ strongly recommended treatment modalities for treating PTSD.
Ironson et al found that compared EMDR therapy to typical prolonged exposure therapy, found that EMDR therapy was more effective in treating symptoms. The study also found that EMDR therapy had a lower dropout rate from participants. Both, however, offered a reduction in the symptoms of traumatic stress, including both anxiety and depression.
Several studies have also found evidence that EMDR therapy is not only effective in the short term, but that its effects can be maintained long term. Marcus et al evaluated people several months after they were given either “standard care” treatment for PTSD or EMDR therapy. During and immediately after treatment, they noticed that EMDR was significantly more efficient in reducing symptoms of PTSD. During the three- and six-month follow-ups, they also recognized that participants maintained these benefits long after the treatment had ended. Overall, the study found that EMDR therapy gave people a longer-lasting reduction in symptoms than standard care.
In regard to depression, a recent inpatient study found that EMDR therapy shows promise in treating the disorder. The study found that 68 percent of the people in the EMDR group showed full remission after treatment. The EMDR group also showed a stronger decrease in depressive symptoms overall. Because of the small sample size, more research is needed.
A great overview of EMDR can be found on the British Psychological Society’s website.